The Construction of Femininity in a Postcolonial State: Girls Education in Singapore By Ee Moi Kho

Nevertheless, if a domestic worker encountered an employment problem or was aggrieved by a breach of the employment contract by her employer, she could lodge a complaint or file a claim with the Ministry of Manpower. To a question on whether any judicial review applications had been brought against that provision, a Singapore representative replied that the law provided for different methods, by which children born overseas could acquire citizenship. On Article 8 , it was said that media and other programmes had been initiated to demonstrate how women were represented in civil society, politics, foreign affairs and trade unions. The Government had no specific programmes to showcase the involvement of women in public life, but non-governmental organizations may have such programmes. Regarding the statement by an expert that Singapore was a “transit area” for trafficking in women and children, it was said that Singapore authorities conducted document and security checks at the airports and points of entry into the country.

With regard to sexuality, BBC News reported in 2001 that Singaporean women have a more open attitude about sexual intimacy in Asia. The study reflected that 18% of the Singaporean women interviewed are “most likely to initiate” sexual activity with their personal and intimate partners. R.W.K.L acquired the data, contributed to the analysis and drafting of the manuscript. S.L.L contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data, and drafting the manuscript. L contributed to the design of study, acquiring data and revising the manuscript.

Although Singapore has not amended the citizenship clauses of its constitution since the 1960’s, the government is doing so now in order to remind citizens that it values every one of them, “regardless of gender.” – YaleGlobal. Most cases of COVID-19 have evidence of human-to-human transmission where the virus appears to spread through respiratory, fomite or faecal methods . The likelihood of vertical transmission is low based on the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System interim study where six babies (2.5%) had a positive nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 within 12 h of birth in severely affected hospitalised women . Hence, the risk of vertical transmission in mild or asymptomatic patients is likely to be lower than that.

Our survey showed that Malay pregnant women are likely to practice safe distancing and sanitise their hands at a higher frequency compared to Chinese to minimise the spread of COVID-19. In addition, women attending ‘high-risk’ clinics are more likely to stay at home compared to women attending ‘general clinics’. A plausible explanation suggests that women with high risk pregnancies are more likely to stay at home to minimize themselves or their foetuses from being infected with COVID-19 when compared to women with low risk pregnancies. Social media and information access in Singapore are readily available via the internet with majority owning mobile devices.

  • As breast feeding requires close contact, direct breast feeding may be of concern in infected mothers.
  • Psychological sequalae of this pandemic may pose a greater conundrum than its clinical aspects.
  • 6.1.1 Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services, by urban/rural.

Of those, only about 7 per cent had aborted for medical or contraceptive failure. While the decision to abort was a private one, the Termination of Pregnancy Act required women to attend counselling conducted by trained counsellors. The aim was to help those who wanted to “keep the pregnancy”, but were unable to do so for economic or other reasons. Regarding equal rights with respect to nationality or children , a member of the delegation said that the grant of citizenship to a child born of a Singaporean father by descent was not absolute. For example, if the child, though his or her birth acquired a foreign citizenship and his or her father was a citizen by registration, then the child had no right to Singaporean citizenship. If the Constitution was changed to allow for citizenship by descent to children born overseas to either a Singaporean mother or father, then there was a chance that the child could end up having several nationalities at birth.

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There are currently limited cross-sectional studies addressing the attitude and perception of COVID-19 among pregnant women. These measures were performed without a ‘lock-down’ period unlike Singapore which implemented a colour-coded framework known as ‘Disease Outbreak Response System Condition’ to guide the public on prevention and reducing the impact of COVID-19. There are four statuses namely Green, Yellow, Orange and Red of which Singapore is at orange currently which meant that the disease is severe but has not spread widely and is being contained . The Singapore government implemented a ‘circuit-breaker’ in different phases’ akin to lock-down period in other countries to curb the community spread of COVID-19 . A circuit breaker is a set of safe distancing measures akin to a lock-down to pre-empt the trend of increasing transmission of COVID-19 by reducing significantly movements and interactions in places . Singaporeans are mostly compliant to the safe distancing measures as there are strict rules regarding social distancing with hefty fines and custodial sentences along with an effective enforcement ability. Meritocracy, she said, in response to a series of questions on the subject, was the very cornerstone of Singaporean society.

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States parties are required to submit reports to the Committee on measures taken to implement the Convention. At its current three-week session, the Committee is considering the reports of eight States parties on measures taken to implement the Convention – Andorra, Guinea, Singapore, Guyana, Netherlands, Viet Nam, Sweden and Nicaragua. An Optional Protocol of December – ratified by 22 States parties –- entitles the Committee to consider petitions from individual women or groups of women who have exhausted national remedies. It also entitles the Committee to conduct inquiries into grave or systematic violations of the Convention.

These questions did not show any association in relation to socio-demographic factors . One of the Committee’s recommendations was to amend the policies so that all Singaporeans, irrespective of their gender or nationality, could enjoy equal status and equal rights. She urged the country to take advantage of the committee’s 24 recommendations on the implementation of the Convention, including those regarding education, violence against women and health, and to adopt the Optional Protocol to that instrument. Replying to a question about HIV/AIDS, she said that the main mode of transmission was through heterosexual contact with commercial sex workers in Singapore and overseas. Males accounted for 88 per cent of all HIV-infected Singaporeans, while women accounted for 12 per cent, with 66 per cent of them being married. Women had equal access to all components of the National AIDS Control Programme, which was drawn up in 1985. The Programme comprised, among other things, public education, education of high-risk groups, legislation and measures to protect the national blood supply through routine screening.